The Anasazi ("Ancient
Ones"), thought to be ancestors of the modern Pueblo Indians
the Four Corners country of southern Utah, southwestern Colorado, northwestern
New Mexico, and northern Arizona from about A.D. 200 to A.D. 1300, leaving
a heavy accumulation of house remains and debris. Recent research has
traced the Anasazi to the "archaic" peoples who practiced a wandering,
hunting, and food-gathering life-style from about 6000 B.C. until some
of them began to develop into the distinctive Anasazi culture in the
last millennium B.C. During the last two centuries B.C., the people
began to supplement their food gathering with maize horticulture. By
A.D. 1200 horticulture had assumed a significant role in the economy.
culture changed continually (and not always gradually), researchers
have divided the occupation into periods, each with its characteristic
complex of settlement and artifact styles. Since 1927 the most widely
accepted nomenclature has been the "Pecos Classification," which is
generally applicable to the whole Anasazi Southwest. Although originally
intended to represent a series of developmental stages, rather than
periods, the Pecos Classification has come to be used as a period sequence:
pre-1000 B.C. (an obsolete synonym for Archaic)
c. 1000 B.C. to A.D. 450
c. A.D. 450 to 750
Pueblo I: c.
A.D. 750 to 900
Pueblo II: c.
A.D. 900 to 1150
Pueblo III: c.
A.D. 1150 to 1300
Pueblo IV: c.
A.D. 1300 to 1600
Pueblo V: c.
A.D. 1600 to present (historic Pueblo)
The last two
periods are not important to this discussion, as the Pueblo peoples
had left Utah by the end of the Pueblo III period.