this time period are scattered widely over the canyons and mesas of
southern Utah; they consist of small hamlets of one to three houses
and occasionally villages of a dozen or more structures. By about A.D.
700 evidence of the development of politico-religious mechanisms of
village organization and integration appears in the form of large, communal
pit structures. One such structure, with a diameter of forty feet, has
been excavated next to the old highway in Recapture Creek by archaeologists
from Brigham Young University.
changes took place before A.D. 750: the old atlatl (spear thrower) that
had been used to propel darts (small spears) from time immemorial was
replaced by the bow and arrow; the bean was added to corn and squash
to form a major supplement to the diet; and the people began to make
pottery. By A.D. 600 the Anasazi were producing quantities of two types
of pottery - gray utility ware and black-on-white painted ware.
By A.D. 750 these
farming and pottery-making people in their stable villages were on the
threshold of the lifestyle that we think of as being typically Puebloan,
and from this time on we call them Pueblos.
Perhaps the most
significant developments in Pueblo I times (A.D. 750 to 900) were 1)
the replacement of pithouse habitations with large living rooms on the
surface; 2) the development of a sophisticated ventilator-deflector
system for ventilating pitrooms; 3) the growth of the San Juan redware
pottery complex (red-on-orange, then black-on-orange, pottery manufactured
in southeastern Utah); and 4) some major shifts in settlement distribution,
with populations concentrating in certain areas while abandoning others.