conditions were almost universal among western Indians during the period,
and in this sense the war can be viewed as an expression of the general Indian unrest and warfare that dominated the trans-Mississippi West
during the 1860s. Similar conflicts also occurred during the decade
between Indians and non-Mormon settlers in each of Utah's neighboring
territories. These confrontations, however, were quickly (and brutally)
put down by federal troops; however, the mounting crusade against polygamy and lingering "Utah War" mentalities made the situation different in
Utah. The Black Hawk War was unique among the era's western Indian wars
in that the antipathy that existed between the United States government
and the LDS Church provided Utah's natives with the opportunity to pursue
their hostile activities for an extended period of time without incurring
the swift and destructive military reprisals suffered by other groups.
Not surprisingly, the war ended almost without incident when federal
troops were finally ordered to engage the Indians in 1872.
See: Peter Gottfredson,
Indian Depredations in Utah (1919); Carlton Culmsee, Utah's Black Hawk
War: Lore and Reminiscences of Participants (1973).