settlements were those founded by individuals, families, and neighborhood
groups without direction from ecclesiastical authority. Most of the
communities along the Wasatch Front were of this type. As the land in
established communities was settled, and the available water preempted,
young men, upon their marriage, would look for another place to locate.
In addition, an average of about three thousand immigrants came into
the Salt Lake Valley each summer and fall--and they immediately needed
a place to live. Also, there were always adventurous souls who wanted
to try a new situation, or who wanted to leave a village. Although LDS officials did not launch nondirected settlements, they encouraged them,
sometimes furnished help, and quickly established wards when there were
enough people to justify them.
the second decade after the initial settlement, 1885-67, the threat
to the people caused by the approach of the Utah Expedition of General
Albert Sidney Johnston in 1857 led Mormon leaders to "call in" all colonists
in outlying areas, including San Bernardino, California, and Carson
Valley, Nevada, as well as missionaries from all over the world. Land
had to be found for them to settle, as well as for the 3,000 or more
immigrants who continued to arrive each summer and fall from Great Britain,
Scandinavia, and elsewhere. During the ten years after the Utah War,
112 new communities were founded in Utah. New areas opened up for settlement
included Bear Lake Valley and Cache Valley in the north; Pahvant Valley
and part of Sanpete Valley in the center; and the Sevier River Valley, Virgin River Valley, and Muddy River Valley in the south. Expansion
within these and older settlements continued until the 1890s. Important
cities that were first settled during this period include Logan (1859), Gunnison (1859), Morgan (1860), St. George (1861), and Richfield (1864).