the fragile environment of the desert, domestic livestock represented
an important source of competition to the Goshutes. They had never raised
horses because the animals would eat the grass which they relied upon
for seeds and fiber. Water, always in short supply, was denied to the
Goshutes by farmers, ranchers, and Overland Stage stations. The Goshutes
responded to this threat in the only way they knew how, by attacking
the stations and farms and killing the inhabitants and livestock. Mormons
had moved into the Tooele Valley by 1855 and were wintering stock in Rush Valley. Goshutes began to kill their livestock and threaten settlers,
in a vain attempt to force the whites off of their homelands. Local
militias, and later the United States Army, attacked the Goshutes, killing
many and forcing the survivors to sign a treaty in 1863. The treaty
was not one of land cession, nor did the Goshutes give up their sovereignty.
They did, however, agree to end all hostile actions against the whites
and to allow several routes of travel to pass through their country.
The Goshutes also agreed to the construction of military posts and station
houses wherever necessary. Stage lines, telegraph lines, and railways
could be built throughout their domain; mines, mills, and ranches would
be permitted and timber could be cut. The federal government agreed
to pay the Goshutes $1,000.00 a year for twenty years as compensation
for the destruction of their game. The treaty was signed on 13 October
1863. Signing for the Goshutes were Tabby, Adaseim, Tintsa-pa-gin, and
Harry-nup, while James Duane Doty, Indian Commissioner, and Brigadier-General Patrick E. Connor signed for the United States. The treaty was ratified
in 1864 and announced by President Lincoln on 17 January 1865.