Vegetation zones in the Henrys range from Alpine, along the summit ridges of Mount Ellen, to Warm Desert Shrub at the base of the mountains. Predominant plants are Ponderosa pines, found on the slopes, and pinyon pine, juniper, and gambel oak, rabbitbrush, and greasewood. On the lower elevations sage, dogweed, ephedra, yuccas, and cactus predominate. The vegetation of the Henrys has been drastically affected by overgrazing.
Wildlife on the Henrys is not abundant, due to the arid nature of the surrounding lands. Reptiles are the most common form of vertebrate wildlife, with many different forms and species present, including rattlesnakes. Various species of birds including sage grouse, ravens, hawks and other predators along with other smaller birds inhabit the Henrys. Deer are the largest native mammals, but rabbits and many types of rodents can also be found, as can their predators--coyotes, foxes, bobcats, and an occasional mountain lion. Most predators, however, have been killed off by ranchers. Porcupines and beaver are also present, the latter along the mountain streams. Other species of large mammals have been introduced, either purposely or by accident, with mixed results. Elk and bighorn sheep were introduced (reintroduced, in the latter case) but neither species thrived and today there are no elk in the Henrys. Feral burros, goats, and horses can also be found in the region.