...In 1904 President Joseph F. Smith issued what has come to be called the "Second Manifesto" which closed the door to approved new plural marriages; however, there remained a significant minority who opposed the practice's demise out of religious beliefs. As conflict arose with this group of fundamentalist Mormons, they sought their own leaders and their own locations to congregate together.
Short Creek, Arizona, on the Utah border, became a settling place for the fundamentalist Mormon community as early as the 1930s. The remote site had long been known by the Mormons; in 1858 Jacob Hamblin discovered Pipe Spring, about twenty miles east of Short Creek, and recognized the area as great grazing ground for cattle. Ranchers took cattle there as early as 1866, but that year five white people were killed by Indians--James Whitmore, Robert McIntyre, and three members of the Robert Berry family--Robert, his wife Isabella, and his brother Joseph. These events brought fear to the Mormons; permanent settlement in the area seemed impossible. The area remained unpopulated until 1912 when Jacob Lauritzen brought his family there. They diverted water from the canyon, imported machinery, lived in a tent and struggled for survival. By 1920 other families had joined them and a school was started with Charles Hafen of Santa Clara as the first teacher. A wooden schoolhouse, a few permanent homes, a store, and post office followed. By 1926 there were about 100 people in the area, and in 1931 twenty-four children were enrolled in the school.