In Ohio, Joseph Smith first taught the central teachings which came to distinguish the Latter-day Saints as a "people apart," an identity that further emerged once they moved to the isolation of the West. He envisioned the "revolutionizing" of society in temple-centered communities where the temporal and spiritual were to be united under divine direction. Unity and sharing would inform all spheres of life, the social, political, and economic, as well as the religious. Missionaries would "gather" the faithful to central locations where temples could be built, the people empowered, and the process continued.
Though important beginnings were made in Missouri (in 1831 to 1833 and again in 1838), and a temple was actually finished in Ohio in 1836, the process in both locations was cut short by opposition. Joseph Smith was then imprisoned in Missouri in 1838-39, and all his followers driven from the state. After emerging from jail nearly six months later and rejoining his family and coreligionists, Smith devoted all his energies toward making the city that became Nauvoo, Illinois--for a time Chicago's rival as the state's largest--the most successful gathering place and temple city yet. Nauvoo was Joseph Smith's only full-scale implementation of the patterns, practices, and teachings that would later help shape early Utah.