Bosone lost a bid for a seat on the Salt Lake City Commission but was reelected in 1934 to the state house. She co-sponsored in Utah the Child Labor Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which failed ratification. In 1936 she ran for a city judgeship and became the first woman to be elected a judge in Utah. She served three terms and supported efforts to establish adult alcoholism and rehabilitation programs.
During World War II Bosone served on the Salt Lake County Welfare Commission and was chair of the Civilian Advisory Committee of the 9th Service Command of the Women's Army Corps, which covered women in eleven western states. She was appointed an official observer at the 1945 organizing conference of the United Nations.
In 1948 Judge Bosone was elected to the U.S. Congress. She served two terms, running in 1950 against Ivy Baker Priest, who later became the U.S. Treasurer. While in Congress, Bosone became the first woman to serve on the Interior Committee. Continuing to be outspoken and energetic, she became involved in two major issues - reclamation projects and American Indian policy.